For such a question, it is necessary to analyze a little while not forgetting these "commandments" that I had given in my book Mon histoire de cuisine.
I am not going to recall them all, because there are 14 of them, and some of them are not related to the question we are interested in. On the other hand, I propose to observe that liquids are... liquids, and solids are... solids.
That's really enough to say it all if you know that our food is often a collection of compounds that are either solid or liquid under the ambient conditions.
For example, flour is solid, but water is liquid, and so is oil. In a dough, for example, there may be grains of flour - solids - dispersed in a liquid, and this "suspension" may be more or less soft, more or less hard.
But let's stick to this experiment of dispersing flour in water. We obtain a more or less soft paste, depending on the proportion of solid: for example, with a lot of water and little flour, we have a dispersed powder (which ends up sedimenting). But with a lot of flour and little water you get a harder dough.
When baking, this dough can harden. If you dry it, i.e. if you remove the liquid, then you get something very hard, which may be crunchy if you have a thick layer, and crispy if you have a thousand little "cracks" resulting from the breaking of many layers, as in a puff pastry.
This analysis, made for water, does not apply to oil, which does not evaporate during cooking: if we repeat the same experiment as before, but replacing the water with butter, which will melt when it heats up, we will recover a shortbread dough, with grains of flour dispersed in butter which, on cooling, will harden a little.
And now a discussion about the binding energy of the molecules in the solids is necessary.
In a salt crystal, the bonds between the sodium and chlorine atoms are very strong (these are "electrostatic" bonds, so that such crystals are very resistant, very hard.
Same for sugar crystals, where the sucrose molecules are held by many "hydrogen bonds".
Ditto in starch grains, since the "polysaccharides" (amylose and amylopectin) that make up these grains are polymers of saccharides, again with the hydrogen bonds previously considered for table sugar, or sucrose.
For fats, such as oil, which is frozen, the crystals formed are much softer, because the bonds are "van der Waals bonds", about ten times weaker than hydrogen bonds, and more than one hundred times weaker than electrostatic bonds (I give orders of magnitude).
In short, one should not forget to think about chemistry, if one wants to perfectly master the crispness, especially for those who are preparing to participate in the 8th note-to-notes cooking contest.
PS. For the most chemists, here is a picture that I think of public salvation to distribute